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tv   Earth Focus  LINKTV  April 25, 2016 4:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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"earth focus," fracking, a method of getting oil at a rock, is raising concerns worldwide. coming up on "earth focus." >> the caribbean and does it stretches out across the third of south africa's land area. mountains separate the land in two different habitats harboring the religious diversity and the
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desert in the world. hear, a world-class astronomy project and a farming industry that exports food around the world producing 3.4 million sheep year. 7 million people rely on this desert for their daily existence. most of the area is extremely dry with about 7-10 inches of rain a year. despite a short summer rainstorm, all of the water comes from wells drilled into the ground and pumped up into the surfacearking back to an older, slower time. farmers, scientists, and to these are worried that without access to clean water like this, this vast area will be economically devastated. this is the name of the desert, but it is also the name of a shale deposit. this basin stretches almost across the country of south africa. look on as a curse for some and
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a blessing for others, locked into the basin might be as much as 400 trillion feet of ale gas, the fifth largest deposit in the world. since the moratorium on natural gas exploration was lifted in 2012, companies like royal dutch shell and others are lining up about south africa's door, waiting for the green light for what the moment -- for what the government hopes will be green energy, jobs, development. >> one of the issues we have with the long-term costs of fracking is that the governments and the oil and gas industries are very keen to promote it on the basis that it brings prosperity. what is this the talking about? are they talking about short- term gains for a few global companies and the government that is to be ruling at the moment? that is what they call
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prosperity. that prosperity is that the cost of the prosperity of future generations, then it is not worth it. >> this group is part of a growing resistance toatural gas production that appeared to do whatever it takes to prevent exploration in this deposit. >> the problem of exploring is something there has never been a precedent of in the department of minerals. natural gas production in shale formations consists of three stages. drilling is down with huge wigs. it drills many wells using directional drilling techniques to fan out the wells like the drill had as much as 10 kilometers away in any direction. was the drilling is complete, it is taken away and service trucks.
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this is a proce cannot hydrauliracturin thpipes healls with the extreme pressure drives the fluid into the shale and cracks it, releasing the gas and other chemicals. the millions of liters of polluted water mixed with fracking lewis returns to the surface where the liquid must be disposed of. often near this with the liquids and volatile compounds can evaporate into the air. for the 8-day year life of the well, trucks must take away the polluted mixture. this can be 50f erything coming uhe well,ostly latile oanic comunds. potential pommells with this process are not just relegated to the fracking of the well but
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every aspect of reduction. the main is when they leak out of the sides of the shaft into the water table through cracked cases. also, the chemicals are mixed and sofas and stored in a large pond and a must be insulated from the college which is sometimes not done. once it is drilled and production, it can still be invisibly polluted. as much as 9% of the methane and out of theay leak well. most shale basins are even flat and maintain a fairly regular deep layer with you a hard rock contractions that would allow water to move upward. dog did from the university of the free state supported natural gas extraction until he embarked on instead of the geology of the desert.
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he fears that political pathways made by lava flows will allow fracking fluids and other ways to rise and pollute the water table. and that goeslove -- goeset went to iraq, to the rock. our problem is 10 times, 100 times bigger. you don't find these in the u.s.. >> the product is under such pressure that is always looking for these preferred slow paths. it is believed in it will find his way up the gas wells. >> what will happen after a 50-
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100 years after the abandonment of the well. >> the latest signs from the gas fields of america seems to support his conclusion. according to the study, and another from cornell university, wells are leaking gas and other chemicals into the air of a rate of about three times what the industry can use. the government suggests that hundreds of thousands of jobs will be created helping to offset the 24% unemploymt. small-scale farmers believe that this is shortsighted.
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>> it is thinking like this that scientists have been trying to instill in government and public health positis with oversight over the drilling activities. what is in the nature? nobody knows for sure and most companies and not telling. this group has worked with the u.s. national science foundation and the massachusetts institute of technology to uncover a list of 246 products used by the natural gas industry. >> one of our staff set out to systematically set up a database in order to look at the long list of chemicals that we have at hand. those products that have health 1%-6% effect.ave 43% of the product on our list
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contained in the quinn disrupt the chemicals that could interfere with the development of individuals before they are born and cause irreversible changes in their health led a life. -- later in life. are not willinghere to trade their long-term future for short-term gain. >> it will in fact our environment and our underground water. >> northern poland.
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this is a picturesque land forms, rolling hills, and pristine forests. the people of fish the independent and proud of their home. some are worried. borland has found itself caught in a global hunt for natural resources. the region around the city is rich in underground gas and energy companies want to drill for it. to do so that have to use a controversial method known as a hydraulic fracturing. in the u.s., this has been linked to a host of social and mental problems. these polish communities have heard the horror stories and don't want this in their backyard. the industry disputes such consent. >> we allow them to go and speak for us. we allow them to speak based on
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misinformation. >> this is growing globally, into the u.s., into europe, and the world beyond. some countries have imposed a moratorium. others, including poland, have in place to it with over 100 concessions awarded. with overbraced it, 100 concessions at. this is an organic farmer. his farm sits on a gas hot spot. he is worried about the impt
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on wer sourc in the region, particularly of chemicals used in these processes leak. he believes other forms of pollution may follow. some do except that poland's gas reserves are economically important but ty are opposed to the fracking process itself.
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>> in this village in the grip of winter, farmers are also concerned. they maintain they were given little information by the authorities or the gas companies before the drilling began.
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residents here say the gas industry has presented a misleading image of fragging. fracking. the film maker behind "gas land"
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recently pledged solidarity with polish activists. >> there is no evidence that shale gas can be developed sustainably. there is no evidence that we can withstand what this would mean for our climate. >> there is no way to extract shale gas without using hydraulic fracture stimulation. >> your tracks the claims that committees have been left in the dark. >> i have been to poland. i've been in the meetings and villages with the gas companies, including chevron, and i explained what is happening, what the process is. i don't believe that every single person has been left in the dark. >> he rejects that fracking will lead to contamination of water. >> i don't believe that we will contaminate the drinking water or doing anything harmful to the environment. >> the critics highlight concerns or drinki supplie they say the industry has
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embarked on a p.r. exercise to win over hearts and minds. local people sayhat the frking has even used the churches influence to convince people that it is safe and that will benefit the community. we tracked down the priests alleged to have been involved.
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what's the potential is bright. it will take some time. it will not happen overnight. poland is off for a great start with t early success that might be questionable. you would expect to see that. you don't have an experience, knowledge, trying to get a pathway forward.
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>> whatever the coming months and years old, those advocating fracking have their work cut out. down, you cang smell gas. , you canou are dining smell gas. >> they have taken oil from the north sea. we will see what happens. >> hydraulic fracturing or fracking involves pumping a miure ofwater, sand, and chemicals into the ground in order to extract natural gas. the government lifted a moratorium on the for an, paving the way
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unprecedented-for gas. >> this is hugely controversial. this is likely to lead to higher fuel bills. say that fracking is just part of a wider trend of extreme energy extraction. >> we expect more to be done in the 14th round. as much as 3-5 of the country is up for grabs and people are right to be concerned about this because the government is trying to change the system and local planning. this is said that large investors can go and get approved.
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we are actually seeing production applied for and we have seen areas of the coastline preping for coal exploration. three could come from other countries but this has already arrived. >> to cannot look at a shell gas or fracking as a single thing. what we're looking at is extreme energy. this is not just about technology, this requires extreme finance, extreme governance. to force these measures through, they are engineering the system to allow the last exploration it -- the gasxplorati. >> the sue has becom sensatnalized. >> this has become the viewpoint or the image of fracking around the world. the media loves sensationalism
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and that has now transcended the entire scientific evidence that says that fracking is safe. >> fearing the worst, communities up and down the country have begun to mobilize. >> thi is a itetter to david cameron who is signed by members of parliament. immediatelling for an ban on shale gas. are delivering it from all regions. >> i think committees are quite right to be very worried about the impact of drilling and fracking. we know that there are real risks of water pollution, for example. what we are talking about here
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is potentially a huge number of wells. in some cases, we're talking about 3400, sometimes in incredibly sensitive areas. in scotland, these local residents are using both traditional water pollution, air pollution, and also fugitives -- fugitive methane emissions. >> this farmer is concerned despite living a considerable distance from the proposed development. >> is all part of one big landscapes system with the mountains to the north and the national parks to the west. it is difficult to separate out
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what is going on. this is quite in landscape context. >> the potential impact on the region's farmland has also worried committees living near to castro and operations. >> my biggest fear is that this and itd is a green area is a very important area. we distribute our crops to over the u.k. parent of this kind of industry here, the amount of wells that they need to make it viable were completely destroyed. >> this will not bring jobs or .ecurities for the farmers there are huge unknowns about health risks, risks to the water, the offers. isusceptib at the best of times. there are allorts of risks associated and we need to address that. we need a reliable future.
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this is very short and potentially disastrous. >> opposition grew dramatically following an earthquake linked to export tory gas drilling. >> it will devastate the whole country. i cannot walk away from this. people need to know about it. once you know the facts, they will say, stop fracking. led to a temporary nationwide moratorium. although this has been lifted, some remain in limbo. >> we are not surprised. >> in sussex, it is unclear whether fracking will go ahead. >> this is a process i would not wish on anyone anywhere. i think it is a poisonous, potentially very dangero proces here, we live in a beautiful part of the world that is classified of an area of the outstanding natural beauty.
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people have livestock, farms. we have beautiful streams running through. it is a lovely place to live. fracking and the industrialization of the landscaped could ruin that. >> forcing high volumes of water and carcinogenic chemicals into the ground at the kind of pressure that would fractionally in your old rock, relying on your own cement cases, that a leak, it will go through, it will go into the ground water. it will leak into the atmosphere. water needs water, water goes from everywhe to everywhere, you cannot separate it. you cannot legislate for the vagaries of subterranean geology. >> proponents say much of the opposition is based on misinformation. >> if someone makes a mistake,
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it leaks out. i think people are foolish to to think that that was some other energy that comes that any kind of risk from that pops out of the ground and produces energy that has no consequences or risk. that is not possible. >> they're trying to convince us that they will do it carefully. safe fracking is the oxymoron of the decade. [captions made possible by kcet television]
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